researchcenter for astrobiology-theinnovativeuniverse

The universe can produce life on a planet if the planet is in a zone suitable for it. It is the result of a sequence of events. The atmosphere of a planet is no invincible barrier for organic parts from the universe. The transporter of the organic parts (a meteorite) must hit the atmosphere only in the right angle to bring intact organic parts to the ground.

The special component that triggered the origin of life on earth (and probably on other planets too) is tryptophane, an amino acid. From tryptophane originates protein. Four billion years ago, there were hydrocarbon compounds, moderate temperatures and water, serving as a solvent and medium. At that time, energy-rich electromagnetic radiation did not exist any more. Now copy-able nucleic acids had to form in primeval ocean structures. The necessary components had to meet and be surrounded by a cell wall. This occurred because of differences in temperature.

The force of gravity had an effect on the molecules like a trap. The gravity concentrated tiny dust particles on the ground and gathered them near warm springs in the pores of stones. Among them there were the required parts which were necessary for the synthesis of genetic material. Despite the loss of various particles there originated dust flakes – the necessary molecules concentrated. This was the first step in the construction of a membrane and therefore construction of a cell.

The precursor of living cells developed from aggregation of abiotic originated macromolecules (subsequent biomonomers like amino acids and nucleotides). The precursors were not able for replication, but they had catalytic potential for a closed chemical reaction chamber and the characteristics of life: metabolism and excitability.  What happened that this potential could be used?

What follows is the first complete explanation, how life on our planet originated:

Methane tetrachloride and fuming sulfuric acid transformed into phosgene in the aforementioned environment. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen originated alcohol (methanol). Nitrogen and ethylene originated “dicyan” (induced under influence of electrical discharge). Dicyan (a pseudohalogen) was stabilised by phosphor and sulfuric acid. The pseudohalogen was inserted into hydrocarbon-compounds by means of chemical reaction.

Ammonia (a chemical compound of nitrogen and hydrogen) originated from dicyan (via hydrogen cyanide and oxidation with oxygen “fulminic acid”, originated an oxide of hydrogen cyanide = “oxygen cyanide acid“. It originated due to electrical discharge, when fulminic acid exploded).

Besides, formic acid (methane acid – a nitrile) was originated from hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. Why is formic acid a “nitrile”?  Hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic acid – in german: “Blausäure”) produces various nitriles (depending on the addition to the various esters and depending on the catalysts). The nitriles then were hydrolysed to carboxylic acids.

Formic acid was at that time the simplest dicarbon acid (we can find the traces of the formic acid also in space).  Formic acid was converted into methane and therefore there was the potential for the “methanogenese”! Ammonia and methanol originated methylamine. Methylamine and phosgen originated “isocyanat”. By the neutralization of ammonia with cyan acid was formed ammoniumcyanate (the cationic ammonium chloride of the cyanic acid). Ammoniumcyanate met ammonia and transformed (at temperatures above 60 degree Celsius) into urea (urea in combination with water has basic / alkaline qualities – it is organic and inorganic simultaneously). This is at the same time the answer to the question: “Why is life possible only in a habitable zone and there in a biosphere?”

Now it became exciting. On planet earth a meteorite hit at this time. He brought the amino acid called “tryptophane” – exactly where our warm spring had already caused something. The delivered tryptophane oxidised and the oxidised tryptophane originated nicotinic-acid. Nicotinic-acid is a heterocyclic carboxylic acid, receiving nitrile from dicyan on the one hand and acquiring anhydrite from tryptophane on the other hand.

For the acid-base reaction (the hardware) tryptophane provided the acid component whereas dicyan (via hydrogen cyanide – in german named: “Blausäure”) provided the basic component. Saturation finally led from “nicotinic-acid“, an organic compound, to “niacin“, a colorless, nonlinear, threedimensional diamagnetic “crystal” that functions as a “processor“ in the aforementioned prepared cell (adenosine as the hardware, positioned in a thermostable case and consisting of isoprenoid alcohol respectively glycerin ether).

Now, the quantum computer started because the crystalline-structured niacin oscillated. Mediating this motion (swinging frequency) to the concentrated molecules (the flakes or the precursor of the cell – including catalytic potential for a closed chemical reaction chamber and the characteristics of life: metabolism and excitability) the first software (“ATP”) was used and the first “species” created and originated! About emulsion (Piezo-effekt and magnetostriction) a membrane was generated. The catalytic potential “adenine” and β-D—ribose was activated and a separate reaction room emerged (emulsion, electrolyte, cell membrane).  A  “RNA” was built (adenosine: adenine and beta-d-ribose)! Alcohol and sugar were the prerequisites for the emergence of ATP (“ATP” is the universal energy “currency“).

ATP evolved from ribose (sugar), adenine and triphosphate, adenine resulted from hydrolysis of nitriles (plus nicotinic-acid) and alcohol originated from the carboxylic acid of the nicotinic-acid. That’s why “adenosine“ (a nucleoside) consists of the nucleobase adenine and the (sugar-) beta-d-ribose.

Under the influence from heat, sodium and potassium „triphosphate“ developed from phosphoric acid (phosphoric acid = the chemical reagent that emerged from sulfuric acid beforehand). All essential ingredients were packed in a membrane whose interior provided different qualities than his surroundings. In particular, a replicating molecule was located inside the membrane, allowing the passing of certain characteristics from one generation to the next – “RNA” (80ies RNA-molecules rely on catalytic activity / today’s name = “ribozyme”)!

The concept of replication was taken over directly from its universal model “carbon“ (see chapter 4 – „Das innovative Universum“ – “The innovative universe“) via the sugar skeleton (helix). From now the RNA was the info bearer for her dynamically variable own structure. RNA operated like an enzyme as a biocatalyst for this her own dynamism!

By Subunits and correlation the pulse wave (polymerization, nitrogen fixation) was regulated. Proteins and nucleic acids were combined to polymeric macromolecules. By the “codehydrase” (NADH, NADPH) the metabolism started (nuclease: reduction of nucleic acid, phosphorylation, alcohol, ribose – spontaneous methanogenesis).

The resulting ATP (the software) and the ribosome (originated from the beta-d-ribose) formed, together with the regulated pulse wave, a “ DNA“ (hardware capable of storing memory data). Niacin (as processor) regulated furthermore the “free radicals” (magnetostriction). The enveloping of primitive RNA-molecules and polypetides (created with assistance of RNA) in an area – wrapped from a membrane – was the milestone in the origin of life.

There, the cooperation of the nucleic acids and the proteins enabled biological evolution. After this step was carried out, the system could develop into independent units. RNA-molecules started now to polymerize amino acids and enzymes. Amino acids and enzymes could be used within the back-coupled control circuit for various reactions (for example hydrogenases: nitrogen fixation and methanogenesis) including the replication of RNA (possible by the linkage: helix / sugar and sugar / carbon to the universal cycle)

The system was able now to orientate: it could grow, replicate and the genetic blueprint transmit (pass on) to the descendants (next “generations”). The process of nucleosynthesis could not be finished in the closed coat. The coat had to be blasted. Thus, the replication (according to a universal model) was necessary! As soon as the membrane was destroyed, the process began outside independently anew. Because the old process went on, a fragmenting took place. The fragmenting lasted so long, until the phase of the first replication was completed.

“Life“  was striving landwards, it would spread over the world in all of its variety (propagation of “species” from salt-containing ocean to land). It needed a mechanism which co-ordinated both trends (potassium and sodium from the triphosphate interdependence). Sodium serves as proton gradient for plasma without cell walls. This mechanism had to provide the software (ATP) with guarantee. The mechanism is known as the “sodium-potassium pump”.

Niacin is a “coproduction“  of dicyan and tryptophane. Niacin is the crystal that starts (via oxygen cyanide acid and ammonia) the urea-cycle and hydrogenases (enzymes for nitrogen fixation and methanogenesis). Niacin takes over the most important program (the program for replication) and uses it in a new (biological) form. The program for replication is located in the “helix” (backbone of the DNA/RNA) where the blueprint of the universal cycle is included in the carbon lattice.

It was the aforementioned mechanism that enabled life to assert itself in the universe. The universal cycle was initiated now on a biological level on planet “earth” (one planet among many). The variety of the accumulation of the salts of the hydrocyanic acid (in german named: “Blausäure”) offered “life” many possibilities. A variety of different micro-organisms (in huge populations) originated. By the generous surroundings influence of universe and home planet evolution was founded.

The motto was: “The stronger asserts himself”. On account of the environmental factors from the universe (universal cycle) evolution jumps also occurred. The Niacin crystal began to animate the system (“matter”) – “sitting” on the elementary basic system – (as a control circuit). The niacin-crystal caught a free radical, converted it to a tamed radical and oscillated in the group with hydrogen (as “mass”).

Matter came to life because niacin provided for a control circuit (cell) “motion” as an “architect’s plan” (by which the cell has became an open system which interoperated via NADH / NADPH with other control circuits). AMP / ADP / ATP (one-part, two-part, three-part- phosphor-chain as software and useable energy conversion system) and the coenzymes NADH and NADPH (as “quantum computer“- programs for RNA / DNA) began to work. They provided information (the architect’s plan which was given via NADH and NADPH as a program code) by oscillation (as an electromagnetic information system) further.

Thereby the molecule organisation was coordinated perfectly. NADH was now in the catabolism “obviously” the “product” of glycolysis and citric acid cycle, and was oxidized in the respiratory chain in order to produce ATP (three-part- phosphor-chain). This biological system suddenly felt an urge to receive genetically his species. It spread genetically to distribute the information spatially. “Life” originated.

In sum: carbon, hydrogen, dicyan, the amino acid “tryptophane”, as well as a biosphere (in good or tolerable amounts: sulfur, phosphorus, sodium, potassium) within a habitable zone (sulfur, phosphorus, sodium, potassium at specific temperatures due to the conversion of ammonium cyanate, ammonium to urea) is required for the origin of life.

Life, even in its simplest form, owns immediately with the first impulse a “consciousness of motion“. Niacin operates as a processor and utilizes the radiation frequencies (up from alcohol via phosphorylation and glycolysis) to generate energy (adenosine, RNA). Niacin binds by help of tryptophane and nitrogen (nitrogen as messenger particle) electromagnetically via the nitrogenase (NDH – NAD+). This means: Niacin saves the recurring elementary impressions so long (thus often), until the universal architect’s plan (carbon) notices them as “meaningful”.

The following graphical chart shows the origin of life (the aforementioned origin process) in clear form:

the origin of life

 

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